Sales tax change frequency by state

Zip2Tax compares the sales tax change frequency of the states. Ever wonder how your state measures up?

It’s generally accepted that there are around 11,000 sales tax jurisdictions across this great and diverse country of ours. This fact alone would seem to be a fairly reasonable argument for the outsourcing of sales and use tax rates from a company such as Zip2Tax. As the head of marketing for Zip2Tax I am always trying to understand our customer’s needs better. I found myself wondering about the sales tax change frequency for all these jurisdictions. I mean, 11,000 rows in a document might be manageable if they only changed their rates every few years or so, right?

So I sat down and with my trusty Excel spread sheet and a large cup of strong coffee and started going back through our research documentation counting the number of months that there had been any sales tax changes in each state. I wanted to determine which states had the highest sales tax change frequency. I sampled a three-year period from December 2015 going back through January 2013.

… fully one-third of the time that these states CAN make sales or use tax rate changes, they DO.

When the numbers were crunched I had some surprises in store, to be sure. For one, the states that provide Zip2Tax with the most new customers have no obvious correlation with which states had the highest sales tax change frequency. In fact, California and New York were only slightly above average.

The standout in this sample was Alabama which turned out to be far and away the leader with changes in 30 out of the 36 months – that’s 83% of the time. This also helped to dash my hopes of discovering a hotbed of customer need for our product since Alabama has so far not proven to be a great source of new business.
sales tax change frequency

Arizona came in second with 14 changes over that same period. Georgia, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas all tie for third place with 13 sales tax rate changes over 36 months. That translates to mean that fully one-third of the time that these states CAN make sales or use tax rate changes, they DO. Not to overstate the obvious, but that is more frequently than quarterly updates.

… more than two-thirds, updated that tax a minimum of once a year, and by the end of 3 years, 86% of the states had made changes…

In fact, 68% of the states that collect a sales tax, that’s more than two-thirds, updated that tax a minimum of once a year, and by the end of 3 years, 86% of the states had made changes.

So as I drained the last of my cold coffee I felt some gratification in that even though sales tax will remain an extremely complex moving target in nearly all 50 states, at least it should mean a steady supply of customers for sales tax rate providers like Zip2Tax for the foreseeable future.

Fill in the sign up form below this blog to receive our monthly newsletter and get alerted when one of these states makes a sales or use tax change or other important tax-related information.

 

Washington State sales tax held hostage

Conditional legislation holds the fate of the Washington state sales tax

Washington voters recently approved an unusual ballot initiative which effectively holds the state sales tax hostage unless legislators propose a separate constitutional amendment related to future tax increases. Assuming the initiative survives an ongoing court challenge, the Washington legislature has until next April to approve a second referendum for the 2016 election. Otherwise, residents will see an immediate 1% cut in the statewide sales tax.

state sales taxMany states allow voters to enact legislation directly through an initiative process. In Washington, voters may initiate ordinary legislation but not amendments to the state’s constitution, which must be proposed by the legislature. This has frustrated efforts by anti-tax activists in the state to legislate a “supermajority” requirement for tax increases. A “supermajority” means each house of the Washington legislature would have to approve any future tax increase by a two-thirds vote rather than a simple majority. Although voters have passed a number of supermajority initiatives in recent years, they have either been suspended by the legislature or struck down as unconstitutional by the Washington Supreme Court. In a 2013 decision, the court held any supermajority rule required a constitutional amendment.

Since the legislature will not approve such an amendment on its own, supermajority proponents switched tactics. They proposed a new initiative, I-1366, which mandates a 1% cut in the state sales tax – reducing it from 6.5% to 5.5% – unless the legislature “first proposes” an amendment to the state constitution which would “require that for any tax increase, either the voters approve the increase or two-thirds of each house of the legislature approve the increase.” The initiative sets an April 15, 2016, for the legislature to act.

In the recent Nov. 3 election, Washington voters approved I-1366 by a margin of about 45,000 votes. But that does not mean the controversial measure will become law. Opponents of the law, including many local governments, have already filed a lawsuit challenging the initiative’s constitutionality. Specifically, opponents claim I-1366 is “beyond the scope of the people’s initiative power.” This past August, a Seattle judge declined to remove the measure from the ballot. On Sept. 4, the Washington Supreme Court upheld that decision.

The Supreme Court did not settle the underlying constitutional challenge to I-1366. Rather, it held the purpose of the measure was “not sufficiently clear” enough to warrant injunctive relief before the election. The lack of clarity refers to the dispute over what I-1366 actually proposes. Opponents argue it is an improper attempt to amend the state constitution by initiative. But proponents claim it is merely “conditional legislation” whose primary purpose is to cut the sales tax.

Indeed, conditional legislation is a common governmental practice. Congress often uses such legislation to condition federal funds on certain acts by states or private parties. For example, states raised their legal drinking age to 21 after Congress made it a condition for continuing to receive federal highway funds. But this is likely the first time a voter initiative has conditioned a state’s ability to collect taxes on a future legislative action.

S.M. Oliva is a writer living in Charlottesville, Virginia. He edits the international legal blog PrivyCouncil.info

Sales and use tax changes for October 2015

Sales and use tax rates have changed in 16 states in Zip2Tax products since September 2015.

In Alaska, tax rates changed for Sitka, Skagway, Seldovia and Whittier.

In Alabama, tax rates changed for Tallapoosa County, Grove Hill, Fayette, Evergreen and Dodge City.

In Arkansas, tax rates changed for Brinkley, El Dorado, and Western Grove.

In California, tax rates changed for Greenbrae and Monterey.

In Kansas, tax rates changed for Andover, Belleville, Buhler, Cherryvale, Eudora, Haven, LaCrosse, Lecompton, Meriden and Bourbon County.

In Louisiana, tax rates changed for Folsom.

In Minnesota, tax rates changed for Lyon and Scott Counties.

In Missouri, tax rates changed for Dent County, Salem, Henry County, Laclede County, New Madrid County, Sedalia, Bertrand, Bethany, Concordia, Country Club Hills, Crystal City, Fair Play, Galena, Hazelwood, Kirkwood, Miner, Rolla, St. John, Stanberry and Tipton.

In North Dakota, tax rates changed for Mandan.

In Nebraska, tax rates changed for Lincoln and Chadron.

In Ohio, tax rates changed for Lake County.

In Texas, tax rates changed for Stowell, Winnie, Rocksprings, Ropesville, Stratford, Gustine, Combes, Deer Park, Granger, Lake Dallas, Panhandle, Santa Rosa, Sonora, Southlake, White Deer and Yorktown.

In Utah, tax rates changed for Murray and Logan.

In Vermont, tax rates changed for Colchester.

In Washington, tax rates changed for Tumwater TBD.

In Wyoming, tax rates changed for Weston County.

There were 25 states with ZIP code changes effective after September 2015 including Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, DC, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Jersey, Nevada, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.A PDF document enumerating ZIP code additions and deletions can be made available upon request.

Angel Downs, Zip2Tax's ead tax researcher

Angel Downs, Zip2Tax’s lead tax researcher

Exemption certificates need to be reviewed for validity

Do you know the validity period of your exemption certificates? Did you know that each state treats them differently and that you should review them periodically to make sure they are still good?

It is a good business practice to periodically review exemption certificates because quite a few states claim their exemption certificates are good until the business has a change, the business closes, or the certificate is revoked. You won’t know if these conditions are met unless you check with your customers and vendors regularly and request updated exemption certificates from them.

Some states have no stated expiration for their exemption certificates but they recommend regular or periodic updates. In these cases we listed the least amount of time between recommended updates. In cases where the state listed “good until the exemption no longer applies” we stated that there was no expiration date. Other states note that exemption certificates are good forever however “exempt status must be renewed”, or they “recommend” updates. In these cases we noted the recommended update or renewal timeframe.

Exemption Certificate Validity

State Abbrev. Validity Period
Alabama AL Till Changed Or Revoked
Alaska AK NA – No Certificates
Arizona AZ Date On Certificate
Arkansas AR NA – No Certificates
California CA Till Changed Or Revoked
Colorado CO No Expiration
Connecticut CT 3 Years
Delaware DE NA – No Certificates
District Of Columbia DC Till Changed Or Revoked
>Florida FL 5 Years
Georgia GA Till Changed Or Revoked
Hawaii HI Till Changed Or Revoked
Idaho ID No Expiration
Illinois IL 5 Years
Indiana IN No Expiration
Iowa IA 5 Years
Kansas KS Till Changed Or Revoked
Kentucky KY Till Changed Or Revoked
Louisiana LA 3 Years
Maine ME Till Changed Or Revoked
Maryland MD 5 Years
Massachusetts MA No Expiration
Michigan MI 4 Years
Minnesota MN 3 Years
Mississippi MS NA – No Certificates
Missouri MO 5 Years
Montana MT NA – No Certificates
Nebraska NE No Expiration
Nevada NV 5 Years
New Hampshire NH NA – No Certificates
New Jersey NJ 5 Years
New Mexico NM No Expiration
New York NY Till Changed Or Revoked
North Carolina NC No Expiration
North Dakota ND No Expiration
Ohio OH No Expiration
Oklahoma OK 3 Years
Oregon OR NA – No Certificates
Pennsylvania PA 3 Years
Rhode Island RI No Expiration
South Carolina SC Till Changed Or Revoked
South Dakota SD 1 Year
Tennessee TN Till Changed Or Revoked
Texas TX No Expiration
Utah UT 1 Year
Vermont VT No Expiration
Virginia VA Till Changed Or Revoked
Washington WA 1 Year
West Virginia WV 1 Year
Wisconsin WI 5 Years
Wyoming WY No Expiration

Sales tax rates and use tax changes for July 2015

Sales tax rates have changed in 20 states and Puerto Rico and there were 13 states with ZIP code changes in Zip2Tax products since June 2015. Sales and or use tax rates are changed in Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and West Virginia.

In Alabama, tax rates changed for Cedar Bluff and Fairview.

In Arkansas, tax rates changed for El Dorado, Manila, Moorefield and Ouichita County.

In Arizona, tax rates changed for Graham County and the city of Marana.

In California, tax rates changed for the city of Weed.

In Colorado, tax rates changed for Georgetown.

In Georgia, tax rates changed for the counties of Muscogee and Whitfield.

In Iowa, tax rates changed for Lone Tree, Solon, Hills, Swisher and West Branch.

In Illinois, tax rates changed for Carbon Cliff, Carbondale, Coulterville, Crestwood, Deland, Elkville, Glenwood, Highwood, La Grange, Lyons, Montgomery, Morrison, Oglesby, Rantoul, Rock Falls, Toledo, Wadsworth, Westmont, and the counties of Calhoun, Greene, Jefferson, Jersey, Jo Davies, Knox, McDonough, Morgan, Perry, Piatt, Scott, White and Whiteside.

In Kansas, the state rate changed and there were tax rates changes for Clifton, Hutchinson, Lyndon, Marquette, and the counties of Gove, Morton, and Nemaha.

In Louisiana, tax rates changed for Winn Parish, Claiborne Parish, and Calcasieu Parish.

In Minnesota, tax rates changed for Hubbard County.

In Missouri, tax rates changed for Cape Girardeau, Hold County, Lawrence County, Buffalo, California, Concordia, Hannibal and Saint Joseph.

In New Mexico, tax rates changed for the counties of Bernalillo, Chaves, Dona Ana, Luna, Roosevelt, San Miguel, Santa Fe, Sierra, Torrance, Valencia, and the cities of Artesia, Sliver City, and Kirtland.

In Ohio, tax rates changed for the county of Richland.

In Oklahoma, tax rates changed for Barnsdall, Castle, Clinton, Colbert, Commerce, Foster, Rattan, Vici and the counties of Custer and Cotton.

In Puerto Rico, the possession tax rate changed.

In South Dakota, tax rates changed for Columbia and Westport.

In Texas, tax rates changed for Garrett, Sandy Oaks and Kendleton.

In Utah, tax rates changed for Farmington.

In Washington, tax rates changed for Sequim TBD and Dayton TBD.

In West Virginia, tax rates changed for Bolivar, Charles Town, Charleston, Martinsburg, Milton, Nitro, Parkersburg, Ranson, Thomas, Vienna and Wheeling.

There were 13 states with ZIP code changes effective after June 2015 including Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Montana, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Utah. A PDF document enumerating ZIP code additions and deletions can be made available upon request.

Angel Downs, Zip2Tax's ead tax researcher

Angel Downs, Zip2Tax’s lead tax researcher

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